Wine Dine and Play: Peruvian Cuisine

Peruvian Cuisine


By Sean Overpeck

Experiment in Peruvian Cuisine that began in November 2015
Article written and published in January 2016
For Wine, Dine, and Play




Peru and its capital city Lima, is home to a very diverse and culture range of people and food, spanning a history of thousands of years going back to the Inca and the Norte Chico civilizations, producing great historic castles and citadels such as Machu Picchu. Peruvian cuisine reflects local practices and ingredients, including influences from the indigenous population of the Inca and cuisines brought in with immigrants from Europe (Spanish, Italian, German, Chinese, Japanese, and Western African Cuisines). 

This article takes this exciting mixture of world cuisines, and puts them to the test using ingredients that are not always available according to the recipe, requiring experimenting. The tasters....100 Peruvians and 900 others working in the Middle East, with all of us away from our home cuisines, and a kitchen where we do our best to make everyone feel like they are at home. So here is a pursuit into the world of Peru and its wonderful cuisine.

National Seal




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Peru Map courtesy of operationworld.org


1 USD = 3.39 Peruvian Nuevo Sol


courtesy of pic2fly.com


The four traditional staples of Peruvian cuisine are corn, potatoes and other tubers, Amaranthaceaes (Quinoa, Kañiwa and kiwicha) and legumes (beans and lupins). Staples brought by the Spanish include rice, wheat and meats (beef, pork and chicken). Many traditional foods—such as Quinoa, kiwicha, chili peppers, and several roots and tubers have increased in popularity in recent decades, reflecting a revival of interest in native Peruvian foods and culinary techniques. Chef Gastón Acurio owner of Astrid & Gastón, a top 100 rated restaurant of the world has become well known for raising awareness of local ingredients. To show the influence and great passion of these chef’s and how they are taking Peruvian cuisine to newer levels, there are now two restaurants in the country that are on the top 100 rated lists. Gastón Acurio’s restaurant and Central Restaurante, by Chef Virgilio Martinez who uses vertical ecological to seek out new flavors to his dishes. 


limaestademoda.com
Chef Gastón Acurio courtesy of phaidon.com
Chef Virgilio Martinez, courtesy of quericavida.com

Many varieties of potato are native to the Andes region. Over 99% of all cultivated potatoes worldwide are descendants from Peruvian Potatoes, to which nearly 4000 varieties are still grown in Peru today. Several varieties of the common beans are also native to Latin America including the Lima Bean, (also the name of the capital city).

San Martín proclaiming the independence of Peru
Peru is a country that holds not just a variety of ethnic mixes since times ranging from the Inca Empire (1438 - 1533), the Viceroyalty under the Spanish Empire and Colonization (1542 - 1824), and the Republic which was achieved after the 1811-1824 war of Independence from Spain. There are  also a climatic variety of 28 individual climates in Peru. The mixing of cultures and the variety of climates differ from city to city so geography, climate, culture and ethnic mix determine the variety of local cuisine. The Pacific Ocean is the principal source of aquatic resources for Peru. Peru is one of the world's top two producers and exporters of unusually high-protein fishmeal for use in livestock/aquaculture feed. As important as the Pacific is to Peru's biodiversity, freshwater biomes such as the Amazon River and Lake Titicaca also play a large role in the ecological make-up of the country.

Machu Picchu
Inca Empire
At the United States Consulate, Basra Cafe in Basra, Iraq, every Sunday for the lunch meal we serve a Peruvian style food bar. The idea came about in early November while talking to customers, and a new group of Peruvian guards who asked if a dish from Peru could be added to the weekly or monthly Latin/Mexican dishes that were served. At that point I began doing some research, presented the ideas to the upper management team, then began experimenting on a few of these dishes. Three weeks later after Thanksgiving, we went a step further and made a full Peruvian Bar. By this time, a handful of guards had now increased to large group, so it made only common sense to create a full line of Peruvian foods. After all we had an Indian, Balkan, Ugandan, Filipino, and Mexican bar already, so why not add one more.  Not only would we be giving a taste of home to the Peruvian guards, but it was the perfect chance to introduce the American's, European's, Indians, Iraqi's and others to new cuisines from around the world. 

Food Market-Cajamarca, Peru
picture courtesy of geology.com
The bar consists of seven items native to the different regions of Peru, beginning with Chupe de Camarones (Peruvian Shrimp Chowder) and it is one of the most popular dishes of Peruvian coastal cuisine. It is made from a thick freshwater shrimp or crayfish stock soup, potatoes, milk, Lima beans, corn, eggs, chili pepper, and queso fresco cheese. It is regularly found in Peruvian restaurants specializing in Arequipan cuisine (Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru).


Chupes are hearty chowders popular along South America's Pacific coast from Chile to Peru. Soups were revered by ancient Peruvians, who cooked several kinds of them. Of these, one of the most popular and tasty were-and still are- chupes: thick soups, with potatoes and legumes. Chupe de Camarones (made with crayfish) is widely popular among the Southern coastal region of Peru (originally from Arequipa). Although the original recipe calls for crayfish, shrimp chupe has become more widely eaten, as fresh or frozen shrimp become more common.

Yum


Recipe

Information

Servings: 10 Ready In: 7h 30m
Prep Time: 7h Cuisine Origin: Peru
Cook Time: 30m Category: Soups
Inactive Time: 6h Difficulty Level: Moderate
Ingredients
Amount in Imperial Measurement

Metric Measurement
Amount Per Serving:
total amount
Equipment and Tools                                (Mis en Place)
Olive oil
3
tbsp
44
mL
Amount Per Serving:
1 cup
Cutting boards[1](green, and red)
Red onions
1



Carbohydrates:
12.4g
2 Sauce pans
Ají amarillo[4]or other green chili pepper variety
1



Total Fat:
5.9g
Chef knife
Garlic cloves
4



Sugar:
1.1g
Measuring cup
Ground ají rojo[5]or substitute paprika
2
tbsp
30
mL
Sodium:
688mg
Measuring spoons
Chicken stock (see recipe here)
5
cup
1 1/2 
L
Calories:
146 kcal
Wire whip or blender
Potatoes, large
2



Cholesterol (HDL):
98mg
Stirring spoon
Green peas
1 1/2
cup
355
mL
Protein:
11.9g
Cheese grater 
Lima or other legume
1
cup
237
g
Dietary Fiber:
1.2g
1 mixing bowl, small
Corn kernels
1/2
cup
118
g
Potassium:
572mg
Thermometer
Basmati rice
1/2
cup
118
g
Vitamin A %DV.
0

Oregano
1
tbsp

tsp
Vitamin C %DV.
0

Salt & pepper

to taste


Omega 3 Fatty Acids:
200mg

Shrimp, large (31/35)
1
lb
1/2
kg



Eggs, large
3






Heavy cream
1
cup
237
mL



Queso fresco cheese, grated
1/2
lb
237
g



Understand Metric & Imperial Conversions

tsp

tsp



Method

Notes for Preparation
1. See the Notes for Preparation section (to the right) for vegetables and legumes for this recipe. Prepare the stock using one of the two methods listed. To make stock from scratch will require 6 hours, to use the second option will be ten minutes. (see recipe for chicken stock here)

Wash, sanitize[2], and rinse the red onions, chili peppers, and garlic to clean thoroughly. 
2. Peel and chop the red onion into 1/2 inch cubes. Use the green cutting board.

Place dry beans in cold water for 6 hours. Make sure the volume of water is three times the amount of your beans. Ratio of 3:1
3. Slice theAjí amarillo[4]or green chili, and remove the seeds, and re-wash. Use the green cutting board.

Hydrating beans faster: Soak in cold water in a saucepan, and gently bring to a boil, remove from the heat and let sit for 1 to 2 hours.
4. Peel the cloves, crush with a knife, and mince. Use the green cutting board.[1]

Prepare Chicken Stock one of two ways: 1. Cook chicken bones with mirepoix for 6-8 hours;
5. Peel the potato and cut into 1/2 inch cubes. Use the green cutting board.[1]

2. Reconstitute chicken powder or base in water. see package for instructions.
6. Switch to the blue cutting board,[1]and remove the head, peel and divine the shrimp.

You can also use the stock from the heads and the skin of the crayfish or shrimp instead of chicken stock
7. In a saucepan over medium-high heat add the olive oil, onions, and chili, mixing with a wire whip, cooking for 4-6 minutes until the onions are translucent[3].


8. Add the garlic and Ground ají rojo[5]or substitute paprika and continue to sauce for a minute or two.


9. Add the Chicken stock, potatoes, peas, lima or other legume, corn, rice, oregano, salt and pepper to the mixture and stir with a spoon or wire whip. Bring the mixture to a boil, then reduce heat to low and let the mixture simmer for an additional 15 minutes.


10. Crack the eggs into a mixing bowl and whip up with a fork or wire whip. Add the Eggs to the mixture along with the shrimp, and continue to cook for another 5-8 minutes.


11. Remove the saucepan from the stove and add the heavy cream. Give a quick taste and adjust the seasonings to add more if desired. Ideal temperature for this dish should be 165°f.


12. If saving, properly cool down to 41°f over a period of 6 hours, and store in the refrigerator for up to 3 days, then reheat the soup to165°f, and discard any leftovers.


Assembly

Drink Recommendations For Dish
1. Transfer the mixture to 10 bowls, making sure the same amount of shrimp is even distributed, along with the potatoes, vegetables, and legumes.

Potable water
2. With your cheese grater, shred theQueso fresco cheese over the top of each bowl as a garnish, using the 1/2 pound block evenly over the 10 bowls.

Cusqueña premium Peruvian beer
3. If desired, garnish the top of the chowder with cilantro and serve immediately.

Rum Nation Peruano
4. See the drink recommendations (to the right) for this dish

Tabernero Champagne, NV - S.A.C.



Notes and Citations:

Temperature Cooking Chart
1.     One of the most common causes of food-related illness (a.k.a food poisoning) is something called cross-contamination, (transfer of harmful bacteria from one food product to another) by way of contaminated tools. Cutting boards are a prime culprit. Using separate, color-coded cutting boards for ingredients is a great way of preventing illness. The colors help you keep track of which cutting boards are reserved for which types of foods, so that you don’t cut lettuce on the same board you used for cutting raw poultry. In this recipe green boards are used for fruits and vegetables, and blue cutting boards are used to cut raw seafoods.

Blue                              100-110°f            (38-43oC)
Pittsburg (B&B)             115°f                    (46oC)
Rare                              120-125°f             (49-52oC)
Medium Rare               130°f                    (54oC)
Medium                        140-145°f             (60-63oC)     Medium Well                150°f              (66oC)                  Well done                      155-160°f             (68-71oC)
2.     In accordance to food safety regulation (21 CFR Part 173) specifies two conditions for the permitted use of hypochlorite solutions (bleach) in washing produce: The concentration of sanitizer in the wash water must not exceed 200 ppm (Parts Per Million).The produce must be rinsed with potable water following the chlorine treatment.


3.     Translucent is defined as being clear from Latin translūcēre to shine through. In other words cooking until clear and light, but not browned or burned. Grand Food Dictionary Online 


4.     Ají amarillo is a Peruvian pepper; "Ají" means chile pepper in Spanish, and "amarillo" means yellow. But although they are named yellow chile peppers, their color changes to orange as they mature. The famous Peruvian chef Gastón Acurio recently named Ají amarillo the most important ingredient in Peruvian cooking. Grand Food Dictionary Online 


5.     Ají rojo is green capsicum pepper producing good yields of 5" long by 1" wide hot peppers. Peppers turn from green to deep orange when mature. The peppers are very mild at the green stage. Plant has green stems, green leaves, and white flowers. This was a favorite variety of the Inca Empire. Grand Food Dictionary Online 

Seafood                         135-140°f           (58-60oC)      Roast Beef                    145°f                   (63oC)         Roast Pork                     145°f                   (63oC)       Ground Beef or Pork    155°f                   (68oC)       Poultry                           165°f                    (77oC)
6.     Queso fresco "fresh cheese" is a Mexican cheese, traditionally made from raw cow milk or a combination of cow and goat milk. In the States, we'll most likely find pasteurized versions. It is a fresh, bright, milky, and mild cheese, perfect complement to a variety of dishes, by either providing contrast to a heavier dish like enchiladas or huevos rancheros, or by complementing something equally light, like salads or grilled vegetables. Grand Food Dictionary Online 



CHUPE DE CAMARONES VARIATIONS
Stock: Ideally, chupe de camarones is given extra flavor by using a stock made from shells and heads of the shrimp. Buy shell-on shrimp with the heads, and when you peel them, add the heads and shells to a saucepan with 4 cups of water. Bring to a boil and then simmer for about 20 minutes to extract all of the flavor. Strain the shrimp stock and discard the solids. Use this stock for your chupe. Or for even more flavor, after simmering the shells and heads, you can add them to a blender with a little of the stock and puree. Strain this puree through a fine-meshed sieve back into the stock.
Vegetables: Most Peruvians would use whole ears of corn (choclo) cut into smaller pieces for their chupe. You can also add fresh, peeled pumpkin, either in chunks or grated.
Cheese: While a fresh cheese like queso fresco is most authentic for chupe de camarones, Monterey jack or 1/2 cup grated parmesan are suitable substitutes. Instead of stirring beaten egg into the chupe, try topping each portion with a poached or fried egg as a garnish.
Chupe de Mariscos (Seafood chowder): Use a variety of shellfish and chunks of fish fillets instead of just shrimp. Clean the shellfish well, and stir everything into the simmering soup as you would the shrimp.


picture courtesy of aperuvianjourney.webs.com
The second item on the bar is the Pollo a la Brasa (Peruvian-flavored chicken), and is one of the most consumed foods in all Peru. It is also the second most popular item on our bar. It is roasted chicken covered in a marinade that includes various Peruvian ingredients. The origins of the recipe date back to Lima, the capital of Peru, during the 1950s. Here at Basra we marinate the chicken for two days in a ginger, beer, balsamic vinegar, mint, nutmeg, and chili paste, then slowly bake it until it is cooked through and a dark brown with gold tints, then top it with an Ají  Verde Sauce, which is a very aromatic and semi spicy version of chimichurri sauce. The key to remember about Peruvian cuisine is that they use a lot of peppers in there cooking, but prefer flavor and aromatics over hot spice like you see in Mexican cuisine, so when working with any peppers, remove the seeds before incorporating them into the dish.


Yum


Recipe

Information

Servings: 4 to 6 Ready In: 7h 30m
Prep Time: 30 Cuisine Origin: Peruvian
Cook Time: 40m Category: Entree
Marination Time: 6h to 2 days Difficulty Level: Easy
Ingredients
Amount in Imperial Measurement

Metric Measurement
Amount Per        Serving:
total amount
Equipment and Tools                                (Mis en Place)
Whole chicken 3-4 lbs
1
----

----
Amount Per Serving:
1/4 piece
Cutting boards[1](green, and red)
Chicken Marinade:




Carbohydrates:
6g
Chef knife
Soy sauce
2
tbsp
30
mL
Total Fat:
44.4g
Cutting boards[1](green, and red)
Limes for juice
2
----

----
Sugar:
0.9g
Baking sheet pan
Garlic cloves
5
----

----
Sodium:
1,517mg
Food processor
Fresh ginger
1
tsp
5
mL
Calories:
617kcal
Potato peeler
Cusqueña Premium Peruvian Beer[3]
1/4
cup
59
mL
Cholesterol (HDL):
187mg
Thermometer
Balsamic vinegar
1
tbsp
14
mL
Protein:
47.1g
Measuring spoons
Huacatay[4]paste or substitute mint leves
1
tbsp
14
g
Dietary Fiber:
1.2g
Measuring cup
Ají panca[5]paste or substitute ground nutmeg
1
tbsp
14
g
Potassium:
122mg
2 kitchen bowls
Ground Cumin
2
tsp
10
g
Vitamin A %DV.
0%

Ground annatto[6]or substitute with ground chili powder
1
tsp
5
g
Vitamin C %DV.
0%

Dried oregano
1
tbsp
14
g



Dried rosemary
2
tsp
10
g



Kosher salt
1
tsp
5
g



Ground black pepper
1/2
tsp
2
g



Ground cayenne pepper
1/2
tsp
2
g



Olive oil, extra virgin
3/4
cup
177
mL



Ají verde sauce (see recipe here)
1
cup
237
mL










Method

Notes for Preparation
1. See the Notes for Preparation section (to the right) for vegetables in this recipe 

Ratio of olive oil to vinegar is 3:1
2. Using a yellow cutting board[1], Butcher the whole chicken into 4 pieces. See the Notes for Preparation section (to the right) on the breakdown. You can cut the chicken into either 4 or 6 pieces, however if you want a larger piece of meat only cut 4 pieces, leaving the thigh and drumsticks connected, and using the wings for another dish, or to make stock.

Wash, sanitize[2], and rinse the limes, garlic, and ginger to clean thoroughly. 
3. On a green cutting board cut the limes in half, and squeeze the juice into a bowl

Whole chicken butchering: A whole chicken can yield 8 separate pieces, with he breast being the largest pieces. Depending on the dish your preparing you may want small or larger pieces of the chicken.
4. Peel the skin from garlic cloves

Legs: With the chicken right side up, cut both chicken legs by slicing at the joint from the top of the leg near the breast wall. Each leg (2) is composed of a thigh and a drumstick. Pull the leg to expose the thigh bone, then flip the chicken over allowing you to cut around the nugget a.k.a the oyster. The leg will separate from the body.
5. Peel the ginger, and cut away  the equivalent of a teaspoon or more for the desired amount you wish.

Repeat the same process with the other leg.
6. For the marinade, in a food processor add all the ingredients listed accept for the olive oil.

You can now choose to leave the leg as is with the thigh and drumstick connected, or separate them with another straight cut down the center of the leg piece.
7. Pulse the mixture on the lower speed setting, then gradually add the olive oil pouring in a steady stream to emulsify[7]the sauce. The sauce should be a nice thick red color, thanks to the annatto[6].

Wings: Locate the joint below the breast on each side and remove the wings from the body by cutting downward.
8. Place the cut chicken into a large bowl, and add the sauce from the presser on top. Mix together so the sauce can incorporate into the chicken. Cover and refrigerate 6 hours or up to two days to allow the marinade to soak in for more flavorful chicken.

Breast: To cut the breast in half you must remove the backbone, by either using your chef knife or a pair of kitchen shears. Turn the chicken on its side and find the strip of white fat known as the fat line below the breast, and cut along the line until the back separates from the body, and then repeat the same step on the other side of the breast.
9. After 6 hours, preheat the convection oven to 425°f (218oC). pPlace the marinated chicken onto a baking sheet pan, and insert into the center of the oven.

To remove the breast bone turn the breasts over and cut through the cartilage until you reach the hard bone portion. Peel back the cartilage with your fingers to expose the bone. Grab it tightly and pull it out to remove from the breast.
10. Cook the chicken for ten minutes, then reduce the temperature to 325°f (163oC), and cook for an additional 30-35 minutes, until using a thermometer the internal temperature is maintained at 165°f (74oC), for 15 seconds or more.

The final step will be to cut the breast in half, giving you 6-8 usable pieces
Prepare the Ají verde sauce (see recipe here) while the chicken is cooking.

Save the bone and cartilage pieces to make a chicken stock. (see recipe here)
Assembly

Drink Recommendations For Dish
1. Remove the baking sheet from the oven and let the chicken cool at room temperature for 5 minutes.

Potable Water
2. To prepare the plate, place one piece of chicken to the side and top it with someAjí verde sauce (see recipe here), and serve the dish with the traditional accompaniments of a leafy green salad and french fries.

Cusqueña Premium Peruvian Beer[3]
3. See the drink recommendations (to the right) for this dish

Rum Nation Peruano


Tabernero Rosé Blend Borgoña 2011, Chincha Valley 
Notes and Citations:

Temperature Cooking Chart
1.     One of the most common causes of food-related illness (a.k.a food poisoning) is something called cross-contamination, (transfer of harmful bacteria from one food product to another) by way of contaminated tools. Cutting boards are a prime culprit. Using separate, color-coded cutting boards for ingredients is a great way of preventing illness. The colors help you keep track of which cutting boards are reserved for which types of foods, so that you don’t cut lettuce on the same board you used for cutting raw poultry. The green board is used for fruits and vegetables, while the yellow is for raw poultry such as chicken, duck, hen, and turkey.

Blue                              100-110°f              (38-43oC)
Pittsburg (B&B)             115°f                      (46oC)
Rare                              120-125°f              (49-52oC)
Medium Rare               130°f                     (54oC)
Medium                        140-145°f              (60-63oC)     Medium Well                150°f              (66oC)             Well done                      155-160°f              (68-71oC)
2.     In accordance to food safety regulation (21 CFR Part 173) specifies two conditions for the permitted use of hypochlorite solutions (bleach) in washing produce: The concentration of sanitizer in the wash water must not exceed 200 ppm (Parts Per Million).The produce must be rinsed with potable water following the chlorine treatment.



3.    Cusqueña Premium Peruvian Beer is one of the few all malt beers brewed in south America. ABV 4.8%. It is a Peruvian golden lager from a brewery founded by German Ernesto Güntherand, and used pure mountain water from the Andes. The beer is made only from malted barley and is hopped with imported Saaz from the Czech Republic. Grand Food Dictionary Online 


4.    Huacatay is an annual herb of the Asteraceae family. It has got different names in different regions such as, Mexican Marigold, Mint Marigold, Wild Marigold, Peruvian Black mint, and Stinking Roger. Its flowers and leaves produce a strong odor as it contains an essential oil. The taste of this herb is somewhat mixture of sweet basil, tarragon, mint and lime. The scientific name for Huacatay is Tagetes minuta. Grand Food Dictionary Online 


5.     Ají panca is a type of chile pepper that is commonly grown in Peru, and frequently used in Peruvian cuisine. It is a dark red, mild pepper with a smokey, fruity taste. It's often sold dried, or prepared into a paste. To make a paste from fresh ají panca peppers, remove the seeds and process the peppers in the blender or food processor with a little bit of vegetable or olive oil emulsion. Grand Food Dictionary Online 

Seafood                         135-140°f           (58-60oC)      Roast Beef                    145°f                   (63oC)         Roast Pork                     145°f                   (63oC)       Ground Beef or Pork    155°f                   (68oC)       Poultry                           165°f                   (77oC)
6.     Annatto come from the dark red seeds of the West Indian annatto tree (Bixa orellana), and though it originated in Brazil, annatto seed has become a staple spice in cuisines from India to the Philippines, and are used to add a vibrant natural red-orange color to food. Grand Food Dictionary Online 


7.    Emulsification is a process in which a well blended mixture of two liquids that normally don't combine, (i.e. oil and water) to prevent a separation. It is achieved by slowly adding the former to the later and mixing rapidly. Mayonnaise and Hollandaise sauce are two examples of oil in water emulsions. Grand Food Dictionary Online 







Peruvian Amazon River courtesy of truthinsideofyou.org


Peruvian Ají Verde Sauce


Recipe

Information

Servings:10Ready In:15m
Prep Time:10mCuisine Origin:Peruvian
Cook Time:0Category:Sauce
Inactive Time:0Difficulty Level:Easy
Ingredients
Amount in Imperial Measurement

Metric Measurement
Amount Per        Serving:
total amount
Equipment and Tools (Mis en Place)
Jalapeño pepper
1
----

----
Amount Per Serving:
2 ounces
Cutting boards[1](green, and red)
Cilantro leaves
1
cup
237
g
Carbohydrates:
4.8g
Chef knife
Garlic cloves
2
tbsp
30
g
Total Fat:
27.1g
Food processor
Green onion
1
tbsp
14
g
Sugar:
2g
Cheese grater 
Huacatay paste — sub mint or mint paste
1
tbsp
14
g
Sodium:
574mg
Measuring spoons
Ají amarillo[3]or yellow bell capsicum pepper
1
----

----
Calories:
250 kcal
Measuring cup
Juice of a lime
1
----

----
Cholesterol (HDL):
0mg

Salt
1/2
tsp
2 1/2
g
Protein:
1.2g

Ground black pepper
1
tsp
5
g
Dietary Fiber:
2.1g

Parmesan Cheese
2
tbsp
30
g
Potassium:
26mg

Mayonaise 
3/4
cup
177
g
Vitamin A %DV.
3%

Olive oil, extra virgin
1
cup
237
mL
Vitamin C %DV.
6%








Method

Notes for Preparation
1. See the Notes for Preparation section (to the right) for vegetable preparation in this recipe 

Wash, sanitize[2], and rinse the Ají amarillo[3]pepper, cilantro, green onion, and the lime to clean thoroughly. 
2. Using a green cutting board[1]and chef knife, cut the tips from the Ají pepper[3], and the Jalapeño pepper, and remove the seeds, then slice. 


3. Peel the skin from the garlic


4. Remove the stems from the cilantro leaves


5. Cut the lime in half on the green board, and squeeze out the juice


6. Cut the green onion, removing the bulb, then cut into smaller pieces so that it can fit into the food processor


7. Grate the parmesan cheese


8. Place all the ingredients except for the extra virgin olive oil in the food processor and pulse at a low speed. Steadily in a stream, and the olive oil to emulsify[4]to create the sauce.


Assembly

Drink Recommendations For Dish
1. Remove from the blender and refrigerate for up to one week before discarding

Potable Water









Notes and Citations:

Temperature Cooking Chart
1.     One of the most common causes of food-related illness (a.k.a food poisoning) is something called cross-contamination, (transfer of harmful bacteria from one food product to another) by way of contaminated tools. Cutting boards are a prime culprit. Using separate, color-coded cutting boards for ingredients is a great way of preventing illness. The colors help you keep track of which cutting boards are reserved for which types of foods, so that you don’t cut lettuce on the same board you used for cutting raw poultry. The green cutting board is used for fruits and vegetables only.

Blue                              100-110°f              (38-43oC)
Pittsburg (B&B)             115°f                     (46oC)
Rare                              120-125°f              (49-52oC)
Medium Rare               130°f                     (54oC)
Medium                        140-145°f              (60-63oC)     Medium Well                150°f              (66oC)             Well done                      155-160°f              (68-71oC)
2.     In accordance to food safety regulation (21 CFR Part 173) specifies two conditions for the permitted use of hypochlorite solutions (bleach) in washing produce: The concentration of sanitizer in the wash water must not exceed 200 ppm (Parts Per Million).The produce must be rinsed with potable water following the chlorine treatment.


Seafood                         135-140°f           (58-60oC)      Roast Beef                    145°f                   (63oC)         Roast Pork                     145°f                   (63oC)       Ground Beef or Pork    155°f                   (68oC)       Poultry                           165°f                   (77oC)
3.     Ají amarillo is a Peruvian pepper; "Ají" means chile pepper in Spanish, and "amarillo" means yellow. But although they are named yellow chile peppers, their color changes to orange as they mature. The famous Peruvian chef Gastón Acurio recently named Ají amarillo the most important ingredient in Peruvian cooking. Grand Food Dictionary Online 


4.     Emulsification is a process in which a well blended mixture of two liquids that normally don't combine, (i.e. oil and water) to prevent a separation. It is achieved by slowly adding the former to the later and mixing rapidly. Mayonnaise and Hollandaise sauce are two examples of oil in water emulsions. Grand Food Dictionary Online 




Lima, Peru courtesy of adaners.wp.d.umn.edu

The Third item on the bar is Lomo Saltado, the top selling item on the bar. It is a sliced beef (tenderloin or in Spanish “lomo”), stir-fried with, garlic, cumin powder, tomato and Spanish onion, fried-mixed with already fried french cut potatoes, coriander and parsley, accompanied by white rice. There are several recipes for this dish, so I modified the one used by Chef Gastón Acurio, using prime rib instead of tenderloin, but you can also use a cheaper cut like swiss steak as well.



In 1920 the first Chinese Restaurants in Peru opened and in the city of Lima the cuisine was given the nickname of Chifa. Lomo Saltado is a popular Peruvian stir fry dish combining sirloin strips or other beef steak with assortments and served with fried potato french fries and rice. Chinese cuisine in Peru has made its way into the mainstream, introducing a rich fusion of old and new worlds. In 1970 Chifa cuisine was introduced to neighboring Ecuador. This version of the recipe came about after offering a Peruvian Bar, and then experimenting with the ingredients for better flavor.

Yum



Recipe

Information

Servings: 10 Ready In: 1h
Prep Time: 30m Cuisine Origin: Peruvian
Cook Time: 20m Category: Entree
Inactive Time: 0 Difficulty Level: Easy
Ingredients
Amount in Imperial Measurement

Metric Measurement
Amount Per        Serving:
total amount
Equipment and Tools                                    (Mis en Place)
Potatoes
2
lb
1
kg
Amount Per Serving:
1 cup
Cutting boards[1](green, and red)
Olive oil
3
tbsp
44
mL
Carbohydrates:
11.8g
Potato peeler 
Garlic cloves
3



Total Fat:
5.8g
1 sauce pan or deep fat fryer
Ground cumin
1
tsp
5
mL
Sugar:
0.3g
1 large saute pan or wok
Beef tenderloin
2
lb
1
kg
Sodium:
1,555mg
Paring knife
Salt and pepper

to taste


Calories:
210 kcal
Chef knife
Red onions
2



Cholesterol (HDL):
66.9mg
Measuring cup
Hot yellow pepper(Ají amarillo)[4] or a capsicum pepper
2



Protein:
27.4g
Measuring spoons
Red wine vinegar
2
tbsp
30
mL
Dietary Fiber:
2.5g
Stirring spoon
Soy sauce
3
tbsp
44
mL
Potassium:
736mg
Thermometer 
Red capsicum bell peppers
2



Vitamin A %DV.
8%

Cusqueña premium Peruvian beer[5] 
1/2
cup
118
mL
Vitamin C %DV.
19.4%

Peruvian Pisco brandy[6] 
2
tbsp
30
mL



Juice of 1 Peruvian lemon







Roma tomatoes
3






Brown sugar (optional)
2
tbsp
30
g



Vegetable oil for frying
3
cup
1/2
L



Parsley
1
bundle         (1/2 cup)
118
g











Method

Notes for Preparation
1. See the Notes for Preparation section (to the right) for the vegetables in this recipe and meat cutting preparation.

Wash, sanitize[2], and rinse the potatoes, garlic, onions, Ají peppers[4], red bell peppers, Roma tomatoes and the parsley to clean thoroughly. 
2. On the green cutting board[1], peel and wedge cut the potatoes. Keep them soaking in water to avoid browning until your ready to deep fry them.

Cut the lemon, and squeeze out the juice. Remove any seeds that drop in.
3. On your red cutting board[1], using a sharp paring knife, trim any fat and silver skin (thin, pearlescent membrane running along top of tenderloin) from the tenderloin, then cut into strips no more than 2 inches in length and 3/4 inch thick.

You can substitute sirloin or other lessor cut to save on the expense of purchasing a tenderloin cut, but you will also be sacrificing flavor by doing so…your choice.
4. On the green cutting board[1], peel the skin from the garlic, mash the clove with flat end of your chef’s knife, then mince the cloves.


5. On the green cutting board[1], peel the skin from the red onions and slice into slivers


6. On the green cutting board[1], dice theAjí peppers[4], or capsicums, remove the seeds


7. On the green cutting board[1], remove the seeds and julienne the red bell peppers.


8. On the green cutting board[1], cut the tomatoes length wise down the center, remove any seeds, then julienne into thick strips.


9. After washing, remove the stem from the parsley and set aside for garnish.


10. Place your sauce pan or wok over medium high heat stovetop and add the olive oil, minced garlic, and cumin, sautéing for 1-2 minutes, watching closely so not to burn the garlic.


11. Add the beef strips to the pan mixing the garlic with the beef until the beef is browned on all sides, roughly 2-6 minutes depending on how you like your meat cooked. See the temperature chart to the right. (You will add the meat back to the pan later and the temperature will go up further).


12. Remove the beef from the pan and sprinkle it with some salt and pepper


13. Add the onions, and Ají peppers[4]to the pan and sauce for 2-3 minutes until they are soft but not yet translucent[3].


14. Deglaze the pan with the Peruvian Pisco brandy[6], and mix regularly for 1-2 minutes until liquid has reduced by half, then add the Cusqueña Premium Peruvian Beer[5], red wine vinegar, and soy sauce.


15. Place the tenderloin back into the pan of liquid adding the red bell capsicum peppers, tomatoes, and the lemon juice. Reduce the heat to medium and cook until all sauce has reduced and thickened in the pan. Optionally you can add a few tablespoons of brown sugar to help thicken the sauce even more, and add a sweet flavor to the dish.


16. while your sauce reduces, take your sauce pan and fill it with the vegetable oil, placing it on an eye at medium-high heat, and once the temperature has reached  325°f (163oC) to 375°f (191oC). Add the potatoes to the oil and fry 3-5 minutes until golden brown. Remove from the oil and let the grease drain from a colander or paper towel.


17. Prepare some white or Peruvian rice (see recipe here)


18. If saving, properly cool down to 41°f over a period of 6 hours, and store in the refrigerator for up to 3 days, then reheat the soup to165°f, and discard any leftovers.


Assembly

Drink Recommendations For Dish
1. On your dinner plate, add 1/2 cup of rice, then spoon the meat and some vegetables from the sauce pan on top of the rice.

Potable Water
2. Place a few pieces of fried potato on top of the stir-fry

Cusqueña premium Peruvian beer[5]
3. Garnish with a few stems of the parsley and serve.

Rum Nation Peruano
4. See the drink recommendations (to the right) for this dish

2012 Intipalka Malbec/Merlot blend, San Jose de los Molinos - Valle de Ica, Peru.
Notes and Citations:

Temperature Cooking Chart
1.     One of the most common causes of food-related illness (a.k.a food poisoning) is something called cross-contamination, (transfer of harmful bacteria from one food product to another) by way of contaminated tools. Cutting boards are a prime culprit. Using separate, color-coded cutting boards for ingredients is a great way of preventing illness. The colors help you keep track of which cutting boards are reserved for which types of foods, so that you don’t cut lettuce on the same board you used for cutting raw poultry. In this recipe green boards are used for fruits and vegetables, and the red cutting board is used to cut up the raw tenderloin.

Blue                              100-110°f              (38-43oC)
Pittsburg (B&B)             115°f                     (46oC)
Rare                              120-125°f              (49-52oC)
Medium Rare               130°f                     (54oC)
Medium                        140-145°f              (60-63oC)     Medium Well                150°f              (66oC)             Well done                      155-160°f              (68-71oC)
2.     In accordance to food safety regulation (21 CFR Part 173) specifies two conditions for the permitted use of hypochlorite solutions (bleach) in washing produce: The concentration of sanitizer in the wash water must not exceed 200 ppm (Parts Per Million).The produce must be rinsed with potable water following the chlorine treatment.



3.      Translucent is defined as being clear from Latin translūcēre to shine through. In other words cooking until clear and light, but not browned or burned. Grand Food Dictionary Online 


4.      Ají amarillo is a Peruvian pepper; "Ají" means chile pepper in Spanish, and "amarillo" means yellow. But although they are named yellow chile peppers, their color changes to orange as they mature. The famous Peruvian chef Gastón Acurio recently named Ají amarillo the most important ingredient in Peruvian cooking. Grand Food Dictionary Online 


5. Cusqueña Premium Peruvian Beer is one of the few all malt beers brewed in south America. ABV 4.8%. It is a Peruvian golden lager from a brewery founded by German Ernesto Güntherand, and used pure mountain water from the Andes. The beer is made only from malted barley and is hopped with imported Saaz from the Czech Republic. Grand Food Dictionary Online 


6. Pisco is a colorless or yellowish-to-amber colored brandy produced in winemaking regions of Peru and Chile. It is made by distilling grape wine into a high-proof spirit, developed by 16th century Spanish settlers as an alternative to orujo, a pomace brandy that was being imported from Spain. Annual Pisco production in 2013 reached 100 million liters in Chile and 7.2 million liters in Peru. Grand Food Dictionary Online 

Seafood                         135-140°f           (58-60oC)      Roast Beef                    145°f                   (63oC)         Roast Pork                     145°f                   (63oC)       Ground Beef or Pork    155°f                   (68oC)       Poultry                           165°f                   (77oC)



Courtesy of go2peru.com

The forth dish is a Limean Carapulcra which is a very appetizing stewed dish of pork and or chicken (we use pork), with dried potatoes, red chilis, peanuts and cumin. We use fresh diced potatoes in place of the dried, which is a version of the dish from the Afro-Peruvian Ica region recipes. Besides pork tenderloin cut into smaller pieces, we also add bacon. The Italian influences on this dish use pancetta as well. 



The Quechuas called it kalapurka, evidence of the antiquity of this dish, which is considered a direct heir of pre-Hispanic cuisine. Its name comes from the kalas, or super hot stones used in cooking it. This version is bastardized a little based on the lack of ingredients in Iraq where I first prepared it for some Peruvian security guards in 2015.

Yum


Recipe

Information

Servings: 10 Ready In: 7h 30m
Prep Time: 30m Cuisine Origin: Peruvian
Cook Time: 50m Category: Entree
Marination Time: 6h Difficulty Level: Moderate
Ingredients
Amount in Imperial Measurement

Metric Measurement
Amount Per        Serving:
total amount
Equipment and Tools                                (Mis en Place)
Chicken stock (see recipe here)
4
cup
1
L
Amount Per Serving:
1 cup
Cutting boards[1](green, and red)
Olive oil
1
cup
237
mL
Carbohydrates:
29g
2 Sauce pans, large
Pancetta
3
lb
1 1/2
kg
Total Fat:
22g
Chef knife
Pork tenderloin
5
lb
2 1/2
kg
Sugar:
0.9g
Metal or wooden spoon
Garlic cloves
3
tbsp
44
g
Sodium:
39mg
Thermometer
Ají amarillo pepper[4]or yellow bell capsicum pepper 
1
----

----
Calories:
307 kcal
Measuring spoons
Ají colorado red pepper[5]or a green chili pepper
1
----

----
Cholesterol (HDL):
85 mg
Measuring sup
Red onions
2
----

----
Protein:
17.5g
Grater 
Bay leaf
2
----

----
Dietary Fiber:
2g

Cumin powder
2
tsp
10
g
Potassium:
526mg

Salt and pepper

To Taste

----
Vitamin A %DV.
50%

Potatoes, large
5
----

----
Vitamin C %DV.
19%

Peanuts
1
cup
237
g



Chocolate, bitter
1/4
cup
59
g



Port wine
1/2
cup
118
mL










Method

Notes for Preparation
1. See the Notes for Preparation section (to the right) for vegetables and fruits in this recipe. Prepare the stock using one of the two methods listed. To make stock from scratch will require 6 hours, to use the second option will be ten minutes. (see recipe here)

Wash, sanitize[2], and rinse the potatoes, red onions, garlic,Ají amarillo[4], andAjí colorado peppers[5]to clean thoroughly. 
2. Using a red cutting board[1], cut the pancetta into cubes

Prepare Chicken Stock one of two ways: 1. Cook chicken bones with mirepoix for 6-8 hours; 2. Reconstitute chicken powder or base in water. see package for instructions.
3. On the same red cutting board[1], take the pork tenderloin, remove any fat, slice into thick chucks, then cut into cubes roughly about one inch


4. On a green cutting board[1], peel the skin from the potatoes, and chop them


5. On a green cutting board[1], peel the skin from the onions, and roughly chop them


6. On a green cutting board[1], peel the skin from the garlic, crush the cloves, and mince with your chef knife.


7. On a green cutting board[1], cut the two Peruvian peppers, remove the seeds, and mince


8. In a saucepan over medium-high heat cook the pancetta in the olive oil  


9. Add the tenderloin, peppers, onions, and all of the seasoning and mix for a few minutes to incorporate.


10. Add the chicken stock, port wine, followed by the potatoes, then reduce the heat, cover with a lid, and simmer for 30 minutes, or until the potatoes are soft and the liquid has reduced to make a nice chunky sauce. Make sure the temperature has reached a minimum of 155°f (68oC), to avoid contracting a food born illness


Remove the saucepan from the stove, and the peanuts to the mixture, then grate the chocolate in as well. Blend the mixture together with the spoon.


Assembly

Drink Recommendations For Dish
1. Scoop 1 cup serving onto a plate with some white rice or Peruvian Rice. (see recipe here)

Potable Water
2. Garnish with some parsley or shaved Yuca Cassava root[6]

Cusqueña Premium Peruvian Beer
3. See the drink recommendations (to the right) for this dish

Rum Nation Peruano


2012 Intipalka Malbec/Merlot Blend, San Jose de los Molinos - Valle de Ica, Peru.
Notes and Citations:

Temperature Cooking Chart
1.     One of the most common causes of food-related illness (a.k.a food poisoning) is something called cross-contamination, (transfer of harmful bacteria from one food product to another) by way of contaminated tools. Cutting boards are a prime culprit. Using separate, color-coded cutting boards for ingredients is a great way of preventing illness. The colors help you keep track of which cutting boards are reserved for which types of foods, so that you don’t cut lettuce on the same board you used for cutting raw poultry. In this recipe the green cutting board is used for fruits and vegetables only, and the red is used for raw meats such as beef, pork, and lamb.

Blue                              100-110°f              (38-43oC)
Pittsburg (B&B)             115°f                     (46oC)
Rare                              120-125°f              (49-52oC)
Medium Rare               130°f                     (54oC)
Medium                        140-145°f              (60-63oC)     Medium Well                150°f              (66oC)                           Well done                      155-160°f              (68-71oC)
2.     In accordance to food safety regulation (21 CFR Part 173) specifies two conditions for the permitted use of hypochlorite solutions (bleach) in washing produce: The concentration of sanitizer in the wash water must not exceed 200 ppm (Parts Per Million).The produce must be rinsed with potable water following the chlorine treatment.



3.    Caramelization is a process in cooking resulting in a nutty flavor and brown color. When you slowly cook onions over an extended period of time, the natural sugars in the onions caramelize, making the result intensely and wonderfully flavorful. Grand Food Dictionary Online 


4.     Ají amarillo is a Peruvian pepper; "Ají" means chile pepper in Spanish, and "amarillo" means yellow. But although they are named yellow chile peppers, their color changes to orange as they mature. The famous Peruvian chef Gastón Acurio recently named Ají amarillo the most important ingredient in Peruvian cooking. Grand Food Dictionary Online 


5.     Ají colorado pepper is a member of a little known group of peppers native to Bolivia and Peru. Makes a fast growing, flat-topped bush 24-30” tall, loaded with ornamental flowers giving way to red, elongated fruits that are not particularly hot, but have a lot of flavor. Ají Colorado handles wet conditions and high elevation better than other peppers and is resistant to viral pathogens. Grand Food Dictionary Online 

Seafood                         135-140°f           (58-60oC)              Roast Beef                     145°f                   (63oC)                  Roast Pork                     145°f                   (63oC)              Ground Beef or Pork    155°f                   (68oC)                Poultry                           165°f                   (77oC)
6.     Yuca Cassava Root is a long tuberous starchy root about two inches around and eight inches long. The root has a brown fibrous skin and snowy white interior flesh. Because it bruises easily, it’s often sold covered in a protective wax coating. Other names for cassava are yuca, manioc, mandioca, yucca root, casabe, and tapioca.   Grand Food Dictionary Online 




Andes of Peru courtesy of tripadvisor.co.uk

Both the beef and the pork dishes go with a Peruvian style rice, which uses long grain rice, (here we use basmati) with lemon juice, fresh garlic, diced onion, ají amarillo or ají mirasol paste, diced carrots, and cilantro. For the ají amarillo paste you can substitute yellow bell peppers without the seeds.



(Arroz Peruano con Cilantro y Zanahorias)
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice). As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize, according to 2012 FAOSTAT data. Peru has many varieties and combination recipes for rice. After some experimenting this one became my favorite to make.

Yum


Recipe

Information

Servings: 4 Ready In: 35m
Prep Time: 5m Cuisine Origin: Peruvian
Cook Time: 30m Category: Side item
Inactive Time: 0 Difficulty Level: Easy
Ingredients
Amount in Imperial Measurement

Metric Measurement
Amount Per        Serving:
total amount
Equipment and Tools                               (Mis en Place)
Unsalted butter
3
tbsp
44
mL
Amount Per Serving:
1 cup
Cutting boards[1](green, and red)
Yellow onion
1
----

----
Carbohydrates:
4.95g
Chef knife
Garlic cloves
2
----

----
Total Fat:
20.48g
Saute pan
carrot
1
----

----
Sugar:
1.56g
Wire whip or wooden spoon
Cilantro
1
cup
237
g
Sodium:
556mg
Grater
Ají amarillo[5], or yellow bell capsicum pepper
1
----

----
Calories:
317 kcal
Potato peeler
Juice of a lemon
1
----

----
Cholesterol (HDL):
69mg

Basmati or long grain white rice
1
cup
237
g
Protein:
27.71g

Cusqueña premium Peruvian beer[4]
1
cup
237
mL
Dietary Fiber:
1.3g

Potable Water
1
cup
237
mL
Potassium:
547mg






Vitamin A %DV.
6%






Vitamin C %DV.
40%








Method

Notes for Preparation
1. See the Notes for Preparation section (to the right) for vegetables and fruits in this recipe 

Ratio of water to rice is 2:1
2. Peel the skin from the garlic cloves, mash them with your chef knife, then mince on the green cutting board[1].

Wash, sanitize[2], and rinse the carrot, onion, cilantro,Ají amarillo pepper[5], lemon, and garlic to clean thoroughly. 
3. Peel, then grate the carrot.


4. Peel the skin from the onion then dice on the green board


5. Cut the ends off theAjí amarillo pepper [5], remove the seeds, rinse and then mince up on the green board[1]


6. Cut the lemon, and squeeze out the juice


8. Remove the stems from the cilantro, and chop up using the green cutting board[1]


7. Place the sauce pan a on medium-high heat stove top burner, and add the butter, garlic, and onion. Stir constantly with a wire whip or wooden spoon to avoid burning, until onions are caramelized [3], between 4-6 minutes. 


8. Add the carrot, cilantro, Ají amarillo[5] pepper, and the rice to the sauce pan and mix together.


9. add the Cusqueña premium Peruvian beer[4] to the pan and continue to mix to incorporate, and let the beer simmer into the rice for 5 minutes.


10. Add the lemon juice and water to the mixture, reduce the heat to low, then cover the sauce pan with a lid and let the mixture simmer for 20 minutes, checking to give the mixture a stir every few minutes, and to make sure that it is not sticking or burning to the bottom of the pan. 


11. Remove the pan from the stove and let cool for a few minutes, giving it a stir or two.


Assembly

Drink Recommendations For Dish
1. Place rice on the side of an entree platter and serve with your Peruvian main course.

Potable Water
2. See the drink recommendations (to the right) for this dish

Cusqueña Premium Peruvian Beer






Notes and Citations:

Temperature Cooking Chart
1.     One of the most common causes of food-related illness (a.k.a food poisoning) is something called cross-contamination, (transfer of harmful bacteria from one food product to another) by way of contaminated tools. Cutting boards are a prime culprit. Using separate, color-coded cutting boards for ingredients is a great way of preventing illness. The colors help you keep track of which cutting boards are reserved for which types of foods, so that you don’t cut lettuce on the same board you used for cutting raw poultry. The green cutting board is used for fruits and vegetables only.

Blue                              100-110°f              (38-43oC)
Pittsburg (B&B)             115°f                     (46oC)
Rare                              120-125°f              (49-52oC)
Medium Rare               130°f                     (54oC)
Medium                        140-145°f              (60-63oC)     Medium Well                150°f              (66oC)             Well done                      155-160°f              (68-71oC)
2.     In accordance to food safety regulation (21 CFR Part 173) specifies two conditions for the permitted use of hypochlorite solutions (bleach) in washing produce: The concentration of sanitizer in the wash water must not exceed 200 ppm (Parts Per Million).The produce must be rinsed with potable water following the chlorine treatment.



3.     Caramelization is a process in cooking resulting in a nutty flavor and brown color. When you slowly cook onions over an extended period of time, the natural sugars in the onions caramelize, making the result intensely and wonderfully flavorful. Grand Food Dictionary Online 


4.      Cusqueña premium Peruvian beer is one of the few all malt beers brewed in South America. ABV 4.8%. It is a Peruvian golden lager from a brewery founded by German Ernesto Güntherand, and used pure mountain water from the Andes. The beer is made only from malted barley and is hopped with imported Saaz from the Czech Republic. Grand Food Dictionary Online

Seafood                         135-140°f            (58-60oC)      Roast Beef                     145°f                   (63oC)         Roast Pork                     145°f                   (63oC)       Ground Beef or Pork    155°f                   (68oC)       Poultry                           165°f                   (77oC)
5.      Ají amarillo is a Peruvian pepper; "Ají" means chile pepper in Spanish, and "amarillo" means yellow. But although they are named yellow chile peppers, their color changes to orange as they mature. The famous Peruvian chef Gastón Acurio recently named Ají amarillo the most important ingredient in Peruvian cooking. Grand Food Dictionary Online





Down town Lima courtesy of sehirler.net
The next dish, and the most fun, also the most time consuming dish is the Papa Rellena (stuffed potato) dish. The traditional dish uses mashed potatoes stuffed with ground (minced) meat, eggs, olives and various spices and then deep fried. Here we take it a step further and hollow out a baked potato, cook the meat sauce, and for the ají pepper we substitute jalapeños without the seeds, adding green olives, raisins, cumin, and tomato paste. We then stuff the potato with the meat, close it up, dip it in flour, followed by an egg yolk-milk mixture, and breadcrumbs. We then freeze it over night, then deep fry it for 5-6 minutes until the breadcrumbs are a golden brown, and finish it in the oven for forty minutes until the temperature reaches 165°f 



Papa rellena is a delicious Peruvian comfort food, similar to mashed potato pancakes, but with a surprise ground beef center. They are the most popular type of croquettes in Peru and other Latin American countries such as Chile, Cuba, Colombia, Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. The first recorded Latin American recipes were printed in the late 19th century, during a time when French cuisine was influencing those of Latin America. In this recipe I modify the dish to exclude mash potatoes and stuff the beef into a whole potato.

Yum


Recipe

Information

Servings: 5 Ready In: 7h 30m
Prep Time: 45m Cuisine Origin: Peruvian
Cook Time: 1h 25m Category: Side dish
Inactive / cooling Time: 4h Difficulty Level: Moderate
Ingredients
Amount in Imperial Measurement

Metric Measurement
Amount Per        Serving:
total amount
Equipment and Tools                                    (Mis en Place)
Whole Potatoes
5
----

----
Amount Per Serving:
1 croquette
Cutting boards[1](green, and red)
Olive oil, extra virgin
1
tbsp
14
mL
Carbohydrates:
32g
Chef knife
White onion
1
----

----
Total Fat:
23g
Baking sheet pan
Garlic cloves
3
----

----
Sugar:
5g
Saute pan
Green bell capsicum pepper
1
----

----
Sodium:
406mg
Wire whip
Ají amarillo pepper[4]or yellow bell capsicum pepper 
1
----

----
Calories:
399 kcal
Deep fat fryer, or a saucepan
Ground Beef
1
lb
1/2
kg
Cholesterol (LDL):
148mg
Thermometer
Ground paprika
1
tsp
5
g
Protein:
9.3g
Measuring spoons
Ground cumin
1
tbsp
14
g
Dietary Fiber:
1.5g
3 kitchen bowls
Beef Broth Base
2
tsp
10
g
Potassium:
260mg
Potato peeler
Potable water
1/2
cup
118
mL
Vitamin A %DV.
2.2%
Skimmer or tongs
Kosher salt
1
tsp
5
g
Vitamin C %DV.
14.3%

Ground black pepper
1
tsp
5
g



Raisins
1/4
cup
59
g



Green olives (optional)
5-7
----

----



Tomato paste
1
tbsp
14
g



Distilled white vinegar
1
tbsp
14
mL



Flour
1
cup
237
g



Salt and pepper to taste

----

----



Vegetable oil
3
cup
591
mL



Eggs, large
5
----

----



Bread for breadcrumbs 8-10    slices
----

----










Method

Notes for Preparation
1. See the Notes for Preparation section (to the right) for vegetables in this recipe. I deviated from the traditional recipe which requires mashed potatoes instead of stuffed a whole potato, but you can do either recipe. In this recipe the green cutting board is used for fruits and vegetables only.

Wash, sanitize[2], and rinse the potatoes, onion, garlic, green bell pepper, and theAjí amarillo pepper[4] to clean thoroughly. 
2. After washing the whole potato, generously apply some salt and pepper to the skin, place in a baking sheet pan, and preheat your oven to 350°f (177oC),  for one hour


3. Remove from the oven and allow to cool for 30 minutes. If your using the mashed potato method, then cool the potatoes for roughly 3 hours until they are at 41°f (5oC).

Mashed potato version: the original recipe calls for you to peel the potato skins, boil, then mash up and cool for 4-6 hours.
4. On a green cutting board[1], cut both of the peppers, removing the stem and all seeds, then finally chop.

Once the meat mixture is prepared you stuff it inside a bowl of the mash potatoes and put a topping on it.
5. On the green board[1], peel the onion, and dice

I used a whole potato for a fancier presentation, and found that it tastes just as good.
6. Peel the skin from the garlic, press them with your chef knife to crush, then mince them on the green cutting board[1]as well. 


7. In a large sauté pan over medium high heat add the olive oil, garlic, and onions, cooking for 6-8 minutes until the onions caramelize[3], then add the two peppers, and continue to cook for 2 more minutes, stirring regularly.  


8. Add the ground beef, and reduce the heat to a steady medium, mixing with a spoon. Also add the seasonings, raisins, and minced olives.


9. Take the beef base powder or paste and reconstitute it with the water. You can follow the instructions provided on the packet or use the measurement above. 


10. Cook for about ten minutes until the beef starts to brown, then add the vinegar and tomato paste. Lower the heat to a medium-low, cover the pan with a lid, and check on it to stir every few minutes, removing after about fifteen minutes. 


11. Remove the sauce pan from the stove and let the meat cool off for about 20-30 minutes


12. take the potatoes out of the refrigerator. If using the mashed method, follow the instructions under the notes for preparation (to the right). For the whole potato method, cut the potato lengthwise in half, remove the potato from once side leaving an empty bowl. Add the beef mixture to that side, then close the potato back up.


13. Set up three kitchen bowls, one containing the 4 cracked and whipped eggs, another with flour, and the third with the breadcrumbs


14. Dip the potato into the flour, shaking off the excess, then dip into the eggs, removing the excess, and the final dip into the breadcrumbs. Place the potato on a baking sheet pan or other container, and repeat the process for the other potatoes.


15. Cover the pan, and place tit in a freezer for two hours to help seal the potato so that it doesn’t separate when you fry it.


16. Place a saucepan on the stove top under high heat filled with the vegetable oil. Remove the potatoes from the freezer, then one at a time, carefully place into the oil once the oil has reached a temperature of 375°f (191oC). Fry the potato until it is a golden brown color, roughly 3-5 minutes. Using a skimmer, or tongs remove the potato from the fry oil and place onto a baking sheet pan. Once all five are done, place them in the oven at 325°f (163oC), for 15-20 minutes until the internal temperature reaches 165°f (77oC), for fifteen seconds. 


Assembly

Drink Recommendations For Dish
1. Handling the potato carefully, either serve it whole on the plate as a side item, or cut it down the middle

Potable Water
2. I like to eat it topped with some Ají verde sauce (see recipe here), or even some sour cream.

Cusqueña Premium Peruvian Beer
4. See the drink recommendations (to the right) for this dish

Rum Nation Peruano



Notes and Citations:

Temperature Cooking Chart
1.     One of the most common causes of food-related illness (a.k.a food poisoning) is something called cross-contamination, (transfer of harmful bacteria from one food product to another) by way of contaminated tools. Cutting boards are a prime culprit. Using separate, color-coded cutting boards for ingredients is a great way of preventing illness. The colors help you keep track of which cutting boards are reserved for which types of foods, so that you don’t cut lettuce on the same board you used for cutting raw poultry.

Blue                              100-110°f              (38-43oC)
Pittsburg (B&B)             115°f                     (46oC)
Rare                              120-125°f              (49-52oC)
Medium Rare               130°f                     (54oC)
Medium                        140-145°f              (60-63oC)     Medium Well                150°f              (66oC)             Well done                      155-160°f              (68-71oC)
2.     In accordance to food safety regulation (21 CFR Part 173) specifies two conditions for the permitted use of hypochlorite solutions (bleach) in washing produce: The concentration of sanitizer in the wash water must not exceed 200 ppm (Parts Per Million).The produce must be rinsed with potable water following the chlorine treatment.


Seafood                         135-140°f           (58-60oC)      Roast Beef                    145°f                   (63oC)         Roast Pork                     145°f                   (63oC)       Ground Beef or Pork    155°f                   (68oC)       Poultry                           165°f                   (77oC)
3.     Caramelization is a process in cooking resulting in a nutty flavor and brown color. When you slowly cook onions over an extended period of time, the natural sugars in the onions caramelize, making the result intensely and wonderfully flavorful. Grand Food Dictionary Online 


4.     Ají amarillo is a Peruvian pepper; "Ají" means chile pepper in Spanish, and "amarillo" means yellow. But although they are named yellow chile peppers, their color changes to orange as they mature. The famous Peruvian chef Gastón Acurio recently named Ají amarillo the most important ingredient in Peruvian cooking. Grand Food Dictionary Online 




Picture courtesy of tailormadeperu.com

Where would a good bar be without a dessert, and Peru is no exception to a good variety. Most of the dessert recipes originated from Spain, such as Turrones, Turrón de Doña Pepa, Arroz con leche (rice pudding), and Alfajores or alajú which is a popular confection dessert, rich in sugar and carbohydrates, but over time the original recipe has been changed do the rarity and expense of some of the items that it calls for. Almost exclusive to the Andes region is the fruit known as lúcuma. Lúcuma juice, ice cream, and corresponding lúcuma shakes are very popular throughout Peru. 

After researching I decided on doing the Suspiro a la Limeña Sigh. This is another Spanish-influenced dessert that uses dulce de leche, which derives from the Spanish Blancmange. The bottom layer is made of dulce de leche enriched with egg yolks, similar to a custard. The top layer consists of meringue made with port wine. Since we don’t have port wine here I make a regular egg white Meringue, then garnish the dessert with some cinnamon for color and extra flavor to subdue the custard flavors. This classic criollo dessert is said to have been named by the famous Peruvian poet and author José Gálvez whose wife Doña Amparo Ayarez was famous for her cooking. When asked what inspired the name, he reportedly replied, "Because it is soft and sweet, like the sigh of a woman." In this case, it would be a woman from Lima, a Limeña.



Suspiro a la Limeña 
(Lima style custard Sigh) 

This version of the recipe came about while just playing around, and wanting more sweetness to the desert then the original recipes.



Yum


Recipe

Information

Servings: 4 Ready In: 1h 30m
Prep Time: 10m Cuisine Origin: Peruvian
Cook Time: 50m Category: Dessert
Inactive Time: 0 Difficulty Level: Moderate
Ingredients
Amount in Imperial Measurement

Metric Measurement
Amount Per        Serving:
total amount
Equipment and Tools                                    (Mis en Place)
1 can of sweetened condensed milk
4
fl oz
118
mL
Amount Per Serving:
1 cup
2 sauce pans
1 can of evaporated milk
12
fl oz
355
mL
Carbohydrates:
51g
Wire whisk or wooden spoon
Vanilla extract
1
tbsp
14
mL
Total Fat:
7g
Electrical mixer with whip attachment
large eggs
3
----

----
Sugar:
48.8g
Spoon
White sugar
1
cup
237
g
Sodium:
66mg
Can opener
Port wine
1/4
cup
59
mL
Calories:
438 kcal
Candy thermometer
Potable water
2
tbsp
30
mL
Cholesterol (HDL):
80mg

Confectioners sugar
1
cup
237
g
Protein:
7g

Powdered cinnamon garnish
2
tsp
10
g
Dietary Fiber:
0.2g

Cinnamon sticks for garnish
4
----

----
Potassium:
27mg






Vitamin A %DV.
4%





Vitamin C %DV.
0%









Method

Notes for Preparation
1. See the Notes for Preparation section (to the right) before beginning this recipe.

Open the milk cans with the opener
2. Over low heat add the two milks to a sauce pan stirring constantly with a wooden spoon or wire whisk, until the mixture begins to change to light caramel color, about 40 minutes. Remove from the heat.

Crack the eggs into bowl, remove the yolks to a second bowl, and whisk them together. Reserve the egg whites for the Meringue.
3. Whisk the egg yolks and slowly add them to the milk mixture also known as a “manjar blanco[1].” Keep beating for a few minutes to thoroughly mix. Transfer the mixture to four separate bowls and leave out at room temperature, or refrigerate.


4. Meanwhile in the second saucepan over high heat, add the white sugar, port wine and water. When it comes to a boil which will roughly take 5-8 minutes, let it sit over high heat for 6 minutes without stirring. The syrup will form a caramelized[2]red color. Remove the saucepan from the heat. You can also use a candy thermometer and once the mixture reaches 230°f (110oC)   then the caramel is done.


5. In an electric mixer with the whip attachment, add the egg whites and confectioners sugar to the bowl and blend on high speed until soft peaks form, which will take between 7-10 minutes. When you lift the beater, there should be a solid meringue foam around  it. 


6. turn the beaters back on, and slowly add the hot syrup in a thin steady stream and continue to mix for several minutes until the mixture turns cold.


Assembly

Drink Recommendations For Dish
1. Take the cups of custard from the refrigerator, and scoop a heaping amount of the meringue on top.

Potable Water
2. Sprinkle the top with some cinnamon, and garnish with a cinnamon stick or a piece of mint. Serve Cold.

Café Tunki Peruvian coffee
3. See the drink recommendations (to the right) for this dish

Familia Deicas Licor de Tannat 2007 from Canelones, Uruguay.



Notes and Citations:

Temperature Cooking Chart
1.     Manjar Blanco also known as manjar de leche or simply manjar, is a term used to refer to a variety of related delicacies in the Spanish-speaking world all milk-based. In South America it refers to a sweet, white spread or pastry filling. Grand Food Dictionary Online 

Blue                              100-110°f              (38-43oC)
Pittsburg (B&B)             115°f                     (46oC)
Rare                              120-125°f              (49-52oC)
Medium Rare               130°f                     (54oC)
Medium                        140-145°f              (60-63oC)     Medium Well                150°f              (66oC)             Well done                      155-160°f              68-71oC)
2.     Caramelization is a process in cooking resulting in a nutty flavor and brown color. When you slowly cook sugar or other items like onions over an extended period of time, the natural sugars in them caramelize, making the result intensely and wonderfully flavorful. Grand Food Dictionary Online 

Seafood                         135-140°f           (58-60oC)      Roast Beef                    145°f                   (63oC)         Roast Pork                     145°f                   (63oC)       Ground Beef or Pork    155°f                   (68oC)       Poultry                           165°f                   (77oC)



Group of Peruvians enjoying the ethnic bar in Basra, Iraq
This experience has made me want to excel plans on a visit to Peru which has been on my bucket list anyway to eat at Chef Gastón Acurio restaurant Astrid & Gastón in Lima and to visit Machu Picchu. My father went years ago and he loved his experience. Now with a better understanding of the cuisine and reading more about the culture, I believe that my girlfriend and I will enjoy the trip even more. 

Who is John Galt?










“Culinary perfection consists not in doing extraordinary things, 
But in doing ordinary things extraordinarily well.”
-Angelique Arnauld (1591-1661)







TTFN




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